Science, and its relationships with other human activities. Micro dictionary.
The common element is that scientific activity is inherently subversive: it rebels against authority and dogma, irrationality, and magical thinking. http://www.lanacion.com.ar/1989407-ciencia-inutil-por-que-la-investigacion-es-estrategica
Science: It is all knowledge that predicts with predetermined effectiveness. Or more specifically, any activity that finds or procures that knowledge.
Part of culture, sometimes a form of social consciousness; that constitutes a system, formed in the course of time, of knowledge about reality, whose veracity and adjustment with it is constantly checked and pointed out in the evolution of life on our planet.
The strength of scientific knowledge lies in the general and universal character of its veracity. Of the ability to predict the future in what he studies. Of the ability to represent reality, which is nothing other than knowing, modeling, or knowing the truth. You don’t need a model to talk about science, but it is better science to have it.
Not every idea has to be true, nor all scientific truth. But science must be true, this being understood as correctly predicting reality.
Unlike art, which uses various instruments, appeals to feelings, interprets, questions and represents, and is interested in beauty among other things, science apprehends reality through the resources of logical thought and experimentation.
Faced with religion, which offers a distorted and fantastic representation of reality (when it does and beyond other ideas that it offers), science formulates its conclusions based on facts. “The world was not created in 7 days and a virgin woman has no children.”, Just as an example of what I am talking about.
Unlike personal information, scientific knowledge is of general interest, it is usually functional and useful to everyone, and to society.
Faced with ethics that seek good, science itself, except when studying ethics, has little to say about good and evil.
Science is not typical of an age or civilization. A witch doctor finds a plant that heals a wound, as does a modern scientist who collides hadrons. Nature also does science, even without consciousness, when a genetic mutation finds a new way of living. Animals can do science by finding, for example, new edible plants, or plants, by developing improvements to photosynthesis. In short, science is the body of knowledge accumulated by life in its evolution on this planet, or more precisely, the advance of this body.
Although it is important to differentiate, science, art, religion, personal data and other forms of knowledge, science can study them all without being any of them, and draw useful or dire conclusions for all these fields. New pigments for painting, classification of gestures so that a robot can act like in a theater, etc.
Science is effective in doing things. Works. In its environment, where a prayer does not guarantee anything, science usually does.
Science generalizes. After the casual and chaotic, he finds and investigates laws with whose knowledge it is possible to carry out a conscious and goal-oriented practical activity. The driving force of science lies in the needs of the development of material production, in the needs of the advancement of society. The progress of science consists in moving from the discovery of cause-effect links and relatively simple essential connections, to the formulation of deeper and more basic laws of being and thinking.
The new discoveries and theories do not nullify the previous results, they do not deny their veracity, but rather they specify it, pinpointing the limits of their application, making them more exact and specifying their place in the general system of scientific knowledge. Science also impacts the philosophical conception of the world. Thus materialism can serve as an instrument for the accurate study of reality, and can be a source of broad and fruitful generalizations. Instead, idealism leads science to the dead end of agnosticism, subordinates it to religion.
Although society severely impacts the development and use of science, the knowledge itself provided by science, except when it is about society itself, is not determined, at its base, by society, but by the reality about it. which operates and develops.
Science, arising from the needs of practical activity related to production and social life, while constantly experiencing the stimulating influence of such activity, influences powerfully the course of the development of society.
Today, it is not possible to conceive of production without science, the importance of which is constantly growing. As science approaches production in the process that leads to the establishment of the material and technical basis of every society, it becomes a direct productive force of society.
To do science, in its strict sense, is to expand scientific knowledge, either by discovering new natural laws
Epistemology: The philosophy of science. Epistemology cannot be done without a deep, operative and scientific knowledge of the vastness of the branches of science. Just as you cannot criticize an author without reading it, or understanding it.
There are several interesting debates in epistemology, by reason or by experimentation? Is science just predictability or MUST it also feature models?
There are many epistemologies. Almost always contradictory between them, even in how they define science. Positivism, and relativism defined below are some of them. And these forms sometimes involve absurd debates, such as proposing that there is no difference between the ideas of science and religious ones, or that there is no reality, but that each one forms reality with his ideas and that all truth is relative.
The struggle between materialism and idealism, the consolidation and development, in the course of this struggle, of the progressive, materialistic tendency, represents a law of the millennial history of philosophy. The struggle of materialism against idealism reflects the struggle of the progressive classes against the reactionary classes.
Scientific method: No single method can be found for the search for scientific truths. Science cannot be defined by its method. The same method for predicting who the new president will be is not used as for predicting how long it takes for a stone to fall under certain conditions. Much less work the same to discover or invent. Even many ideas appear by chance.
Positivism: It is the belief that it is possible to know all of reality, and that reality was created with criteria such as beauty. The definition that appears today is different and is based on considering science as resulting from the application of the scientific method. That for me does not exist. This phrase summarizes what I visualize as positivism: ‘
“A theory with mathematical beauty is more likely to be correct than an ugly one that fits some experimental data. God is a mathematician of a very high order, and He used very advanced mathematics in constructing the universe.” Paul Dirac
Philosophy: The fundamental question of philosophy is that of the relations between being and thought. According to the way of solving this problem, all philosophical currents are divided into two main fields: materialism and idealism. For the Soviets, philosophy is science. I’m not too sure about that, or if it’s another type of activity. Perhaps it is more linked to psychology or perhaps it ends up being embedded in the study of intelligences and consciences, artificial intelligence. Probably there you will end up solving what is being and what is thinking. In any case, applying the precautionary principle, CONICET should continue to finance philosophers, and another area such as INCAA should not be created for part of the arts.
Belief: Set or system of ideas, norms of behavior, rituals or ceremonies of prayer or sacrifice, based on faith or the revealed, that are characteristic of a certain human group; and with which man recognizes a relationship with the beautiful, good, transcendent, sacred, numinous, supernatural, magical or with the divinities.
Fideismo: Doctrine that supplants knowledge by faith or that, in general, assigns a certain value to faith. In one measure or another, fideism is typical of all idealistic theories and expresses that science is subordinated to religion.
Relativism: In its most extreme form, it is the belief that “anything goes”, in the sense that every idea has the same degree of truth, that is, null, or that there is no truth or reality. An extreme representative of this position is this phrase:
“Thus science is much closer to myth than a scientific philosophy is prepared to admit. It is one of the many forms of thought that have been developed by man, and not necessarily the best. It is conspicuous, noisy, and impudent, but it is inherently superior only for those who have already decided in favour of a certain ideology, or who have accepted it without having ever examined its advantages and its limits. And as the accepting and rejecting of ideologies should be left to the individual it follows that the separation of state and church must be supplemented by the separation of state and science, that most recent, most aggressive, and most dogmatic religious institution. Such a separation may be our only chance to achieve a humanity we are capable of, but have never fully realised.” Feyerabend.
This thought is useful to neoliberalism that does not want states financing the development of third world countries, it is useful to believers who find a way to do science without leaving aside the crudest religious ideas, it is useful to churches and It alleviates the pressure they had during Modernism and the era of Renaissance enlightenment. And it is useful to the empire because it deflates the only way of growth and empowerment of the peripheral countries technological development.
Fuentes Diccionario soviético de filosofía. http://www.filosofia.org/urss/ddf1984.htm
SOBRE MATERIALISMO Y DIALÉCTICA MARIO BUNGE http://www.fgbueno.es/bas/pdf/bas11507.pdf